Pareeksha – Clinical Examination

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Rogi Pareeksha

It is the examination of the patient and is divided into 3 steps

DARSANAM Inspection, Observation.
SPARSANAM Palpation, Percussion, Auscultation.
PRASNAM Interrogation.

These steps are applied to a further detailed examination of the patient that is conducted in two ways – Dasavidha Pareeksha (tenfold examination) and Ashtasthana Pareeksha (eightfold examination).

Dasavidha Pareeksha
1. Dooshyam Regarding the structural and functional abnormalities of the body.
2. Desham Geographical situation of the place where patient lives (eg: marshy).
3. Balam Physical strength.
4. Kalam The season and climatic conditions.
5. Analam The digestive power of the patient.
6. Prakrithi The natural Thridosha constitution of the body.
7. Vayas Age of the patient.
8. Satvam Regarding the structural and functional abnormalities of the body.
9. Sathmyam General and personal habits of the patient. Eg: smoking, hard working, day sleeping etc.
10. Aharam Nature of food (eg. vegetarian or non-vegetarian).
Ashtasthana Pareeksha
1. Nadi Pulse.
2. Moothram Urine.
3. Malam Faecal matter.
4. Jihwa Tongue-taste.
5. Sabdam Voice and speech of the patient.
6. Sparsham Touch, skin and tactile sense.
7. Drik Eyes and vision.
8. Akrithi General body build,eg: lean, muscular, etc.

Roga Pareeksha

It is the diagnosis of the disease and is done by ascertaining the following five factors.

1. Nidanam Causative factors of the disease.
2. Purvaroopam Prodromal symptoms. eg : excessive sweating in Diabetes.
3. Roopam Sign and symptoms. eg : increased blood sugar in Diabetes.
4. Upashayam Alleviating factors.
5. Samprapthi Pathogenesis.

Diagnosis and treatment are also based on the sources of knowledge.

Chaturvidha Jnanas (4 sources of knowledge)

1. Pratyaksham from what is observed.
2. Anumanam what is inferred.
3. Aptopadesam from authority..
4. Yukti according to logic.