Ayurveda Principles Of Treatments & Therapies From Nagarjuna
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Ayurveda

Basics Principles of Ayurveda

Kapila Samkhya Doctrine
Kapila Samkhya Doctrine
Pancha Mahabhuthas

According to Ayurveda all living and non-living things are constituted by 5 elements in different ratios. According to the ratio difference they differ in constitution, character and properties.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIVE ELEMENTS
Elements Essential Auxiliary Related to
Ether (AKASHA) Sound Non-resistance Rarefaction
Air ( VAYU) Touch Vibration Propulsion
Fire (TEJAS) Appearance Heat & Color Conversion
Water (APAS ) Taste Fluidity Degree of Liquidity
Earth (PRITHIVI ) Smell Solidity Density of Particles
RELATION OF THE FIVE ELEMENTS
TO THE THREE ENERGY PRINCIPLES IN THE UNIVERSE
STRUCTURE OF UNIVERSE FUNCTIONS IN UNIVERSE
Ether (space) WIND (Principle of propulsion, movement)
Air (motion)
Fire (energy) SUN (Principle of conversion, transformation)
Water (cohesion) MOON (Principle of cooling, cohesion or preservation)
Earth (mass)
Thrigunas

There are three primary qualities, which are omnipresent at work behind all material forms in nature, i.e, Satwa (consciousness or intellect), Rajas (motion or action) and Thamas (inertia or resistance).

Satwa Rajas Thamas
Whatever is pure and illuminating. Inferred as pleasure. Whatever is active, energising & activating. Inferred as pain. Whatever is passive and offers resistance and restraints. Inferred as delusion.
trigunas
Thridoshas

There are three biological humors or doshas. VATHA - the energetic humor controls destruction; PITTA - the thermogenic humor organises body activities after transformation; and KAPHA - the cohesive humor is responsible for maintaining creation.

thridoshas
Properties
Vatha Pitta Kapha
Rooksham (dry) Snigdham (unctuous) Snigdham (unctuous)
Laghu (light) Theekshanam (sharp) Seetham (cold)
Seetham (cold) Ushnam (hot) Guru (heavy)
Kharam (rough) Laghu (light) Mandam (dull)
Sookshmam (subtle) Visram (foul smelling) Slekshnam (smooth)
Chala (mobile) Saram (flowing) Mrusthnam (soft)
- Dravam (fluid) Sthira (firm)
Functions
Dosha Normal function
Vatha Energy, inspiration, expiration, actions, mechanism of impulse, proper functions of dhathus and of indriyas.
Pitta Digestion, body temperature, hunger, thirst, taste, beauty, intellect, grasping power, courage, body softness.
Kapha Stability, unctuousness, strength of joints.
Seats of Doshas
Vatha Adharangam Lower part of the body
Pitta Madhyangam Middle part of the body.
Kapha Urdhwangam Upper part of the body
Divisions of Doshas
Vatha
Name Functions
Prana It is responsible for receiving substances like air, water, food and impressions through the five sense organs from the outside world.
Udana It is responsible for rendering the received food in the stomach in fluid or solid. Speech and memory are also functions of Udana.
Samana Digestion and absorption.
Apana It is for controlling movements of constituents like urine, faeces, flatus, menstrual discharge. It is responsible for delivery and ejaculation as well.
Vyana It is responsible for the propulsion from center to periphery; movements of limbs, flow of blood and sweat.
Dhathus

Dhathus are tissues of the body that are maintained within a particular limit and do not get eliminated (except the reproductive one - shukra).

NAME CHARACTER FUNCTION
Rasa (CHYLE) Nutrient fluid Nutrition
Rakta (BLOOD) Blood Oxygenation
Mamsa (MUSCLE) Muscular tissue Movement
Medas (FAT) Lubricating fat deposits Lubrication
Asthi (BONE) Supporting and accommodating bony structures Support
Majja(BONE MARROW) Tissues inside the bone Support
Shukra (REPRODUCTIVE) Reproductive system Reproduction
Dosha - Dhathu relationship
VATHA destructive to all dhathus
PITTA enhancing rakta dhatu and sweda mala
KAPHA enhancing all dhathus
Malas

They are waste products from the metabolic activities of the body. They are

Dosha - Dhathu relationship
Mala Function
Pureesha (faecal matter) gives strength to stand erect.
Moothra (urine) gives slimy character to the body.
Sweda (sweat) makes the skin unctuous.
Dooshikadimala (excreta from eyes, nose, ears) protects and lubricates.
Agni

It is the digestive power of the human system, but also appears throughout the universe in various changes of substances such as those observed in chemical, bio-chemical and nuclear processes. However it is to be distinguished from Agni Bhutha, which is a principle. Agni works at 3 different levels.

Jataragni The digestive fire or the power to digest food.
Dhatvagni Special digestive agencies for various bodily tissues dependent on Jataragni.
Bhuthagni Required for the formation of specific material in the body such as rods and cones responsible for photosensitivity in the eye, special liquids around the taste buds in the tongue and so on.

Each of these three divisions have further subdivisions not mentioned here.

Koshtam

This is the character of bowel movements, which are of four types.

Kruram (Constipative) Vatha predominant
Madhyam (Medium) Pitta predominant
Mridhu (Loose) Kapha predominant
Samam (Naturally formed) Vatha-Pitta-Kapha balanced

Each of these three divisions have further subdivisions not mentioned here.

Prakrithi

Prakriti is the natural thridosha constitution of the body which results from the predominance of Doshas right from the moment of conception of a person.

Prakriti is the natural thridosha constitution of the body which results from the predominance of Doshas right from the moment of conception of a person. Based on the permutations and combinations of the three Doshas, seven types of constitutions can be formed.

  • Vatha
  • Pitta
  • Kapha
  • Vatha-Pitta
  • Vatha-Kapha
  • Pitta-Kapha
  • Sannipatha or balanced constitution (Sama Prakriti).

Doshic constitution takes shape right from the moment of conception. The types are classified by their predominance. A purely single Dosha constitution is seldom found and a balanced constitution, though extremely good, is also rare.

Constitution Chart
PHYSICAL FEATURES VATHA PITTA KAPHA
Body frame Lean & thin. Moderate. Large & thick.
Body weight Low. Moderate. Overweight.
Skin Dry, rough, cool, black, brown. Soft, oily, warm, fair, yellowish, red. Thick, oily, cool, pale, white, glistening.
Hair Dry, rough, brittle, blackish, brown. Soft, oily, early grey, baldness, yellow, red. Thick, oily, wavy, dark, glistening, white.
Teeth Irregular, protruded, crooked, thin gums, tendency towards tooth decay. Regular, moderate, soft, gums, yellowish. Regular, strong, white, healthy.
Eyes Small, dull, attractive, brown, black iris. Medium, sharp, penetrating, green, grey, yellowish iris. Big, blue iris, thick eyelashes.
Joints Bony markings seen. Just visible. Not seen.
Musculature Slender but hard. Loose. Firm, stout.
FUNCTIONAL FACTORS VATHA PITTA KAPHA
Appetite Variable, scanty. Good, excessive. Low, but steady.
Thirst Variable. Excessive. Less.
Sweating Variable. Excessive. Less.
Sleep Scanty, interrupted. Moderate, 4-6 hours, slightly disturbed. More than 6 hours, sound.
Taste they like Sweet, sour, salty. Sweet, bitter astringent. Pungent, bitter, astringent
Elimination Irregular, dry, hard, constipated. Regular, soft, oily, loose. Regular, oily.
Physical Activity Fast & very active. Medium. Lethargic and slow.
Sexual Vitality Less. Moderate. Good.
Pulse Thready and weak. Jumping . Broad & slow.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS VATHA PITTA KAPHA
Emotional temperament Unpredictable, anxious, insecure. Irritable, aggressive, greedy, jealous. Calm, quiet.
Mind Restless, active. Aggressive, intelligent. Calm.
Faith Changeable. Fanatic. Steady.
Memory Recent - good;
remote - poor.
Sharp. Slow but prolonged.
Interests Recreation, dance, drama, cultural activities. Dress and ornaments. Philosophical topics.
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